Tuesday, April 29, 2008

The Technology or the Instructional Design

Which makes the difference, the design of instruction or the application of technology? I happen to be of the opinion that the design of instruction is the way to make an impact. The longer I read and apply and observe the use of technology the more I see a need for research to show what works and what does not work.

Being in the midst of my own research and writing -- which includes plenty of reading, I find that educators all over are asking the same questions. How can I design my instruction with the use of technology to make a lasting, deeper, learning experience for my students. Many times, I am afraid, technology comes into that question with no reason other than the higher -ups think this is a good thing and it therefore brings about promotions.

I am presently spending my time finding how good instructional design, the opportunity for working at one's own pace -- which comes with some technologies, can potentially have an impact on one's self-regulated learning behaviors.

More coming --

Sunday, April 27, 2008

Here is the teams part. The team would like us to use this as a place to post comments and ideas for applications. You know, just to find what the team considers interesting and apply it for the team's use, then give the team feedback on the application.

The team's latest finding has been deepBurner ... a great digital video disc and compact disc burner. Most of our faculty have been using Media Player to burn sound files and/or The Windows Xenon Professional's ability to burn data files. This program however, is great in reliability, it has a small file size and is fast.

*Ok, here is the latest find. I found a program under Educational Software on download.com called Athan Basic. I've been using it for a few weeks now...boy, is this program a dynamo or what? What it does is streamlines the playing of Athan five times a day during each prayer time with a built in synchroclock that has over 6 million towns, cities, and villages worldwide. I think it is safe to assume that cleveland is covered, but what a boost to our spiritual life! Also, for those of us that might not be up on our Aramaic, it translates the Athan into such popular languages as French and cypranian, perfect for our teachers from "across the pond"!

I also found a really great website to upload ringtones. Make sure you go here after you cut down the tracks like "Big Bad Wolf" or other town favorites as "Did You know that You are my Hero?"

Ok staff, its come to my attention that the Happy Hands club basic flash animation for learning sign language needs to be kicked into high gear. In order to facilitate that, I have found this program on download.com. The program is FreeTrak and it will allow our faculty to manage their Ncaa tournament pool by importing all the information they care about directly from the internet. What's so great about this is that if some piece of software is managing it for them then they won't have to waste time that could be spend submitting animation frames for our compilation on the basketball tournament results.

OK Staff, it has come to my attention that milliseconds of the department's time have been wasted because people AREN'T using hot keys as required and outlined in the Department's Instructional Manual that I spent years creating. Guys, this COLOSSAL waste of time is unacceptable. How can we expect students to embrace technology if WE'RE AFRAID to implement it ourselves? Despicable.

Thursday, April 17, 2008

Testing and Evaluation Strategies

Basic Premise:

"The most successful design of effective eLearning emulates the presence of a Master Instructor in a classroom."

Effective eLearning is accomplished by:
  1. Presenting content at a level appropriate to the learner
  2. Engaging the learner to become a participant in the learning process
  3. Evaluating the level of learner comprehension
  4. Providing additional instruction, as necessary, to increase understanding
When building an eLearning application with embedded assessment, don't direct the learner to the instructions again once they make a mistake, it is better to direct them to additional and different instructions.

General Design Strategies

The primary tool of the evaluation process is a question:
Multiple Choice
Text Entry
Matching/Rank Order

What is the difference between an exercise and a test?
The learner must know which one is measuring their abilities. When testing, many times the learner will assume that they are not going to do well. When taking an exercise, they do not think about the matter of "right or wrong."

This session is full of information, however it is not all useful for me as I do not do the types of testing that is presented.

This is the last session of the eLearning Guild 2008, so I am going to close at this point and begin to pack up for leaving town.

Applying Design Models to eLearning Modules

Process models: ADDIE was presented and the phases.
Design (has a design phase)

The next model presented is the Dick & Carey model.

The presenter is showing these are "process models" versus "design models"

Clark & Lyons book "graphics for learning" is presented in the book as a design model. This is a process model -- this is presented as a better model. Almost all of the models so far have a phase for design.

Savvy Process: Allen Interactions
This is found in Michael Allen's book and presented as a process model.
Preparation -- Interactive Design

Participants at a Savvy Start include a producer and a developer from Allen Interactions.The producer is the person who provides project management and instructional design on the project.The developer is there to provide technical support and create prototypes. On the client side, participants usually include the project manager, stakeholders and subject matter experts (SMEs). It’s usually best to keep this group small - 4 or 5 people total (1-2 from Allen, 2-3 from the client) will be able to reach consensus and keep moving to make the best use of Savvy Start time.

Analysis for this project may include interviews with end-users, and an analysis report.

Revisions to SAVVY Start prototypes will be created (often called “Second Prototypes”, “Third Prototypes” etc.) and tested with users during this stage. Media prototypes will also be created, revised and approved.

Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). Instructional Design theories and models: a new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol III)

First Principles:
(Deavid Merrill)

Introduce Problem/sitution/goal
Activation of prior experience
Demonstration o skills
Application of skills
Integration of these skills into real world activities




The goal is to define the problem first:
Second "activation" -- i.e. listen to an audio clip, then ask for initial reaction.
Third: Demonstration of skills -- video showing the problem or situation
Fourth: Have the students to apply skills
Lastly, Integrate all into a solution

next model presented is the Dick & Carey model.

SEDA Model


Star Legacy -- Model
Vanderbilt Learning Technology Center (Schwartz et al, 1999)

Look ahead
The challenges
Generate ideas
Multiple prespectives
Research and Revise
Test your Mettle
Go Public
Reflect Back
(ETR&D Vol 50 No 2)

Nine Events of Learning (Robert Gagne)
Instructional Event Internal Mental Process
1. Gain Attention : Stimuli activates receptors
2. Inform learners of objectives: Creates level of expectation for learning
3. Stimulate recall of prior learning: Retrieval & activation of ST memory
4. Present the content: Selective perception of content
5. Provide "learning guidance" : Semantic encoding for storing LT memory
6. Elicit performance: Response to questions to enhance encoding
7. Provide feedback: Reinforcement and assessment of correct performance
8. Assess performance: Retrieval and reinforcement of content as final eval.
9. Enhance retention and transfer to the job: Retrieval and generalization of learned skill

    1. Gain attention

    2. In order for any learning to take place, you must first capture the attention of the student. A multimedia program that begins with an animated title screen sequence accompanied by sound effects or music startles the senses with auditory or visual stimuli. An even better way to capture students' attention is to start each lesson with a thought-provoking question or interesting fact. Curiosity motivates students to learn.

    3. Inform learners of objectives

    4. Early in each lesson students should encounter a list of learning objectives. This initiates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the learner to complete the lesson. These objectives should form the basis for assessment and possible certification as well. Typically, learning objectives are presented in the form of "Upon completing this lesson you will be able to. . . ." The phrasing of the objectives themselves will be covered under Robert Mager's contributions later in this chapter.

    5. Stimulate recall of prior learning

    6. Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. It is easier for learners to encode and store information in long-term memory when there are links to personal experience and knowledge. A simple way to stimulate recall is to ask questions about previous experiences, an understanding of previous concepts, or a body of content.

    7. Present the content

    8. This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully, and typically is explained and then demonstrated. To appeal to different learning modalities, a variety of media should be used if possible, including text, graphics, audio narration, and video.

    9. Provide "learning guidance"

    10. To help learners encode information for long-term storage, additional guidance should be provided along with the presentation of new content. Guidance strategies include the use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies.

    11. Elicit performance (practice)

    12. In this event of instruction, the learner is required to practice the new skill or behavior. Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention.

    13. Provide feedback

    14. As learners practice new behavior it is important to provide specific and immediate feedback of their performance. Unlike questions in a post-test, exercises within tutorials should be used for comprehension and encoding purposes, not for formal scoring. Additional guidance and answers provided at this stage are called formative feedback.

    15. Assess performance

    16. Upon completing instructional modules, students should be given the opportunity to take (or be required to take) a post-test or final assessment. This assessment should be completed without the ability to receive additional coaching, feedback, or hints. Mastery of material, or certification, is typically granted after achieving a certain score or percent correct. A commonly accepted level of mastery is 80% to 90% correct.

    17. Enhance retention and transfer to the job

Learning Philosophies: Provide the underlying approach and driving mechanism that creates the relationship between teacher and student of facilitator and participant.

This was a fantastic presentation -- very informative.

Things I've Learned in My Life

Today is the final day of the eLearning Conference. The keynote speaker is Stefan Sagmeister Author, Designer, Innovator

Where do you draw your happiness and inspiration from? How can everyday images, phrases, and events inspire you or provide a source for ideas? Stefan Sagmeister is among today’s most important graphic designers. He has designed branding, graphics and packaging for clients as diverse as the Rolling Stones, HBO, the Guggenheim Museum and Time Warner. He has also earned near to every major international design award. In this presentation he will challenge you — through his life observations and lessons learned — to look at design, work, and your daily activities from a new and inspiring viewpoint. This fun, funny and thought-provoking closing general session will recharge your innovative and creative spark and send you off with new ways of looking at the world, your life, and your work.

This presentation is very interesting. As I am live-blogging, I am hearing and seeing this presenter's works. His company works in three areas, Music Industry, Socially Responsibilities, and Corportate Design.
He has shown his designs in each area. He has just stated what many designers already have suggested and that is that the quality of design is much different when the designer is not working under pressure. He is presently sharing what he feels he has learned in life through his profession.

There is so much that he is saying and showing that I will have to stop this typing and be more attentive. I feel at least this keynote speaker is more worthwhile.

Wednesday, April 16, 2008

The Future of the Internet

Here in a session at the eLearning Guild 2008 - the keynote speaker of the day is speaking on the topic of "The Future of the Internet." Speaker is Mark Patrick.

He states that we have only experience 5% of what the internet offers for us.

Many of his comments so far are quite shallow and common sense to me. He is a good speaker, but I am not sure he knows his audience as well as he should. Speaking on topics of email, security, websites, business oriented topics that are not indepth is less than I anticipated.

For the most part, the conference has been great. I am still waiting for this speaking to state what the "Future of the Internet IS" ... he hasn't said it yet!!! :-(

As I am blogging his speech live, I am waiting -- and becoming tired of waiting.

Here is th
e info he has bestowed upon us thus far ...
1. Email is common and the primary way teenagers communicate.
2. Web services should be global in their design
3. Internet Service Providers must offer all services, all hours.
4. Companies are not being as responsible as they should be in responding to customers
5. Spam is a problem and the filters are blocking customers

As can be seen, this is not NEW information, and it does NOT tell about the future of the internet.

Ah ha -- he just said that he will us about the future of the internet - so apparently he knows that he hasn't gotten to that point yet.

Most of the things he speaks of as "futurisitic" of the internet are already in place. The point he is focusing on right now is "learning" and talking about how schools and libraries will change. The fact of the matter is that they HAVE changed.

I guess I will cut off at this point and add better information and more information later.

Monday, August 06, 2007

Latest Research - Some changes

As you view my April posting, it shows that the title of this Blog, assigned two years ago, is no longer accurate. Though I am still an instructional technologist, I have seen the light. Educational psychology is the foundation to good IT .. or Instructional Design (ID). From this point on I will be posting my findings as I am working on the completion of my dissertation.

Back soon (not "later")

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